Residents may also decide to maintain their public roads through an independent special district called a "Community Services District" ("CSD"; see Government Code sections 61000 et seq., newly revised effective January 1, 2006). A CSD has its own locally elected governing board to ensure local control of decisions, such as budgeting, revenue, and scope of service. A CSD is required to follow state laws applicable to public works contracts, including formal bidding and payment of prevailing wages.
Formation must go through LAFCo. Formation can occur only in conjunction with approval of a special tax or parcel charge. Often, a CSD is formed to provide a number of other public services in addition to road maintenance (see, Government Code section 61100). The permissible range of public services is determined by LAFCo review, which mainly concerns the overall efficiency and legality of providing such services.